ʿAlā al-Dīn Abū Bakr al-Kāsānī (d. 1189) in what might be a throw away line in his Badāʾiʿ al-Ṣanāʾiʿ fī Tartīb al-Sharaʾiʿ, The Immaculate Calling in Ordering Normative Traditions really startled me. He wrote: المذاهب تمتحن بعبادها/ al-madhāhib tumtaḥanu bi ʿibādihā vol 3:466, Kitāb al-Nikāḥ. I translate this as: schools of thought or moral orders are tested by the their followers. Kāsānī’s editor writes, bi fasād ʿibādihā, by the corruption of its followers. I thought this man’s insights required commentary and he shares a common sense sensibility over time. So I started my op ed by channeling the insight of Kāsānī.